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    Archived pages: 47 . Archive date: 2012-06.

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    Descriptive info: .. Home.. Why Are You Here?.. Violence Abuse Information.. Logbook, Protection & Help.. Personal Area.. Who We Are Contact.. Surveys.. Warning!!.. Please be aware of how to exit this site quickly by clicking on the exit sign in the top right hand corner of your screen.. Please be aware that your computer stores information about the websites that you have visited.. Learn how to delete this history by reading Surf Safely below.. Violence Abuse Prevention Alliance.. Violence and abuse are the most frequently occurring crimes in society.. The majority of these crimes go unreported.. Many individuals will be repeatedly victimised throughout their life.. Experiencing these crimes can have a devastating effect on the people involved as well as those close to them.. www.. vapa.. ie.. is primarily an information website offering an overview of the different forms of violence and abuse being experienced daily and on an international basis.. It also gives people the opportunity to voice their own opinions as well as support for those who have experienced  ...   and issues related to these crimes (.. ).. Protection:.. The introduction of protection guidelines for anyone currently experiencing abusive behaviour or involved in potentially dangerous situations (.. Logbook, Protection Help.. Outlet:.. Offering the opportunity for people to express themselves, share their opinions and experiences in a safe and anonymous manner (.. Alliance:.. The development of a diverse community who publicly express and endeavour to improve support for those who are or have experienced violence and abuse.. (.. Become a member.. Research:.. Continued high standard of research that is informed by people in the community for the purpose of increased victim protection and prevention or reduction of violent and abusive behaviour (.. Surf Safely.. Remember To Clear Your Browser s History.. Browsers store a list of all sites visited but you can hide this very easily.. Learn How.. All material is 2009 www.. ie does not allow the reposting or using of its copyrighted material without prior permission.. Please contact l.. hempenstall@ucc.. ie for more information.. Conflict Abuse Information.. Disclaimer..

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    Descriptive info: Why are you here?.. Are you in an abusive situation?.. Are you worried about a friend or family member?.. Are you worried about your own behaviour?.. Have you recently left an abusive situation?.. Early warning signs.. Are You in an Abusive Situation?.. Abuse can involve obvious forms of physical violence, controlling behaviours or harassment.. However, abusive behaviour can be.. difficult to recognize.. or is quickly dismissed.. There are numerous types of abuse and some forms are not as obvious as others.. It may take some time to recognize that you are in an abusive or dangerous situation.. Abusive situations always involve.. non-consent.. You may have had to.. obey.. certain commands or.. change.. your behaviour.. You may have been intimidated, frightened, harassed or physically injured.. These situations will have a serious.. effect.. on your health, self-confidence or social life.. If you are fully aware of the abuse it is common to feel confused, angry and unable to leave or report the situation.. It can also be difficult to find help or support.. Below are a number of questions that may help you to.. reflect on your own experience.. The questions are divided into different sections including:.. 1) Thoughts, Feelings, Behaviours Health.. 2) What is important to you?.. 3) Leaving or taking steps to leave an abusive situation.. Please think about the following:.. Thoughts.. I have lost self-confidence since this situation began?.. I doubt myself or my abilities more since being involved in this situation?.. I have lost trust in other people because of this situation?.. I feel hopeless or that there is no way out of the situation?.. I hate myself since being involved in this situation?.. Feelings.. I have felt scared more than once in this situation?.. I have felt put down or disrespected more than once in this situation?.. I feel alone or isolated in this situation?.. I feel angry, confused or frustrated because of this situation?.. I feel unable or not strong enough to leave / report the situation?.. I feel stuck or have no control over the situation?.. Behaviours.. I have changed my behaviour or the way I do things because of this situation?.. I avoid seeing or making friends because of the situation?.. I get angry at or aggressive towards others because of this situation?.. I have looked for help or support because of this situation?.. I have physically hurt myself on purpose because of this situation?.. Health.. My physical health has deteriorated or weakened since being involved in this situation?.. I have recurring physical symptoms (headaches, stomach pain, sore throat etc.. ) since being involved in this situation?.. My psychological or emotional well-being has changed since being involved in this situation?.. I smoke, drink or use medication excessively because of this situation?.. I have had physical injuries because of this situation?.. 2) What is Important to You?.. What or who is more important to you?.. Keeping the situation private or getting help for the situation?.. Protecting the person(s) that are hurting / threatening me or telling others about the situation?.. Protecting myself or the person / people that are hurting me?.. Protecting those close to me (such as children) or protecting the person / people that are hurting me?.. How do you feel about the person or people that are hurting you?.. I love the person / people.. I hate the person / people.. I want to protect the person / people.. I feel that I have to stay with the person / people.. I am afraid of what the person / people will do if I leave or report the situation.. The person / people are not bad but they need help.. I am and feel protected when the person / people are near me.. I have nobody else if I push the person / people away.. What would you like to see happen?.. I want to remain in this situation without the abuse / threatening behaviour.. I want to leave or get help for this situation but don t know how.. I want to leave or get help for this situation but don t feel strong enough.. I want to leave or report the situation but am afraid what will happen.. What is clear to you?.. I am happy with this situation.. I need help and support with this situation.. This situation has had a negative impact on my life.. I am clear about the risks of remaining in this situation.. I am clear about what is important to me in life.. There is help and support available to me if I need it.. It is a good idea to stay in this situation.. I know how to keep myself and others safe in this situation.. I know where I would like to be in 5 years time.. 3) Leaving or taking steps to end an abusive situation.. Deciding to leave or end an abusive situation is difficult and may take months or even years.. There are a number of steps that you can take that may make the transition easier including:.. Evaluating or reflecting.. Repeatedly asking yourself if this situation is what you really want and thinking about alternatives can help you to be clear about your own thoughts and feelings.. Keep a diary / logbook (somewhere safe) of your experiences.. Answer questions (similar to the ones above) about the situation and think about your future.. Support.. Finding support (through trusted friends or professionals) is an important starting point.. While you may feel isolated or alone there are people available that can help you through this initial phase.. Legal rights.. Abusive and threatening behaviour is a criminal issue.. Being aware of your rights can help to protect you, your assets and others close to you such as children.. Finances or living arrangements (if applicable).. If this behaviour is occurring at home, it may be helpful to save and hide some money before leaving.. It is also important if you are living with your partner to arrange some alternative or temporary accommodation.. Regardless of your situation it may be important to increase the security in and around where you live.. Personal well-being protection.. Leaving or taking steps to end an abusive situation can be a dangerous time.. The perpetrator(s) may try to stop you from leaving or continue abusive and threatening behaviour after you have left / reported the situation.. It may be helpful to develop a protection plan with the assistance of a trusted friend or professional.. It is important that you and those close to you remain safe.. If you are worried about the situation, please.. seek professional help.. as soon as possible.. Contact details of support services in your area can be found.. here.. Back To Top.. You may have a loved one such as a friend, child or parent who is involved in an abusive relationship or whose partner is displaying increasingly worrying behaviour.. You may be worried about a loved one who is the target of community violence, antisocial activity or harassment.. Many questions and frustrations arise when trying to help your loved one.. How a loved one has reacted to their own situation will impact upon the decisions they make as well as the options they feel are available to them.. It is possible that your loved one is emotionally drained, scared, feeling humiliated, depressed or angry.. Denying that any problem exists or minimizing the seriousness of the situation is common.. Admitting that they need support or sharing details of their experience can be extremely difficult.. Common reactions to distressing incident(s) and situations include:.. Extreme changes in appearance (Example: weight loss/gain).. Extreme changes in demeanour including self-confidence or levels of aggression.. Sleep disturbances.. Increased stress levels.. Involvement in risky behaviour such as substance abuse and promiscuity.. Decreased levels of concentration.. Anxiety or panic attacks.. Avoiding others and socializing.. Lessened trust in others.. Regardless of the type of situation and emotions that a loved one is experiencing there are a number of ways that you can provide support.. Below are a few basic.. guidelines.. that may help you to support those close to you.. What you can do.. Express.. your concerns by talking to them privately.. Ask how they are and if there is something that you can do to help.. Offer.. support.. regardless if they decide to remain in the relationship or refuse to report those who have or continue to hurt them.. Listen.. to any fears or worries and try to understand their situation.. Recommend that they begin a.. logbook.. or journal to document what they are experiencing and their own thoughts on the situation.. protection plan.. and offer some assistance in its development.. Reassure.. them that they have a place to stay or someone to talk to when  ...   the likelihood that you will self-harm or hurt those close to you.. It is important to be able to recognize the factors or triggers that increase the likelihood of destructive or abusive behaviour.. Triggers are person-specific.. Different people will have different triggers.. It is important that you think about the factors that impact on your choice to be violent or abusive.. It is also important that you seek appropriate and professional.. help.. Warning signs.. What are the main warning signs or triggers (For example: increased feelings of anger / frustration, changes in mood, relationship issues etc.. )?.. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________.. What can I do when these early warning signs arise? (For example: talking to someone, using positive coping strategies, avoiding those that I might hurt etc.. Are there social settings / outside activities that can provide an immediate positive distraction when these warning signs are present?.. Who are the people or professionals that I ask for help?.. What is the contact details of people or professionals that will help me?.. If you are worried about your own behaviour please seek professional advice and help as soon as possible.. Leaving or ending an abusive situation is incredibly difficult.. It takes determination and courage.. Many people think that once they have left an abusive situation the hardest part is behind them.. However, this period is often quite turbulent, filled with confusion and possibly legal battles.. It can also be a particularly dangerous time in terms of personal safety.. The perpetrator(s) may continue abusive and threatening behaviour after you have left or reported the situation.. Of primary concern is your well-being.. Being involved in an abusive situation can have serious effects on your emotional or physical health as well as your social support network.. In order to increase your safety please think about the following:.. Seeking.. legal advice.. (including child custody issues and protection orders).. Developing protection plans for you and those close to you (please see the.. section).. Seeking support from.. professional services.. Informing those close to you (including neighbours, employers, child minders etc.. ) of your new situation.. If you must have continued contact with the perpetrator(s) consider arranging meetings at a neutral and safe location (i.. e.. not in your home /perpetrators home).. Having truly supportive people around you will also help during this transition.. If you are.. socially isolated.. please contact support services for additional assistance.. While people can feel relieved after leaving an abusive situation there may also be.. conflicting feelings.. towards the perpetrator(s) as well as the new situation.. Commonly reported feelings include:.. Guilt.. - This may be tied to religious beliefs or loyalty to family / perpetrator (s).. Confusion.. - People often minimize the seriousness of the situation once it has ended.. Forgetting or forgiving the behaviour can cause people to doubt their own decision to leave/report the situation.. Strong positive feelings for the perpetrator(s) can also cause confusion.. Embarrassment.. - This may be linked to complete dependency on the perpetrator(s).. Once an abusive situation has ended people may not know how to deal with finances or feel confident in their own decision making.. This can cause embarrassment and decreased self-confidence.. Sympathy.. - Many people feel sympathy for the perpetrator(s) and worry excessively about their well-being after they have left and abusive situation.. Depression.. - If there has been a long-standing relationship between a person and the perpetrator there can be a period of grieving.. As with the breakdown of many relationships people can struggle with feelings of loneliness or depression.. The presence of these feelings can impact on how well a person will adjust without the perpetrator(s).. It may also increase the likelihood that a person will.. return.. to the abusive situation.. If you are thinking of returning to a partner or a potentially abusive situation,.. please talk to a trusted friend or relative first.. People often repeatedly leave and then return to an abusive situation.. While this is common, it may prevent people from moving on with their lives.. Please think carefully before making any decisions.. Early Warning Signs.. There are usually some important indicators (warning signs) before the onset of abusive behaviour particularly in intimate relationships.. The ability to identify early warning signs can.. the likelihood of victimization and increase your safety as well as those close to you.. It can be difficult to spot abusive behaviour particularly in the early stages of any intimate relationship.. Abuse typically begins with subtle (unnoticeable) behaviours that escalate in frequency and severity overtime.. Below are a few examples of common early warning signs.. Many of these warning signs will.. co-occur.. Time spent together.. Spending a lot of time together is quite natural during the early stages of an intimate relationship.. However, if your partner is insistent on being with you all of the time this could be an indication of potentially controlling behaviour.. Spending less time with friends and family could also result in isolation and the destruction of an important social support network.. Jealousy.. Many people mistake jealousy and possessiveness early in the relationship as a sign of love.. However, becoming excessively jealous over whom you speak to or spend time with may be an indication of future controlling behaviour.. Extremes of behaviour.. Being very loving and then extremely cold towards you without warning or for no apparent reason may represent a difficulty in coping with or accepting certain situations.. Unpredictable behaviour particularly at extreme levels may prove problematic at a later stage especially if your partner has aggressive tendencies.. Many abusers have two faces.. These people can be extremely outgoing, pleasant and seemingly supportive to friends, colleagues and members of the public while in private are very abusive.. Attitudes.. Many people have quite conservative views on how others should or ought to behave.. However, it is important that very strict or ridged codes of conduct are not forced onto you.. Enforced ideals may result in you altering the way you dress or how you act in certain situations.. It may also increase the risk of abusive behaviour if you don t adhere to your partners strict ideals.. Aggression.. If your partner has the tendency to be excessively critical of and aggressive towards others (particularly those close to them or you) this may reflect a common thought pattern.. Similar criticisms or the use of violence may be directed at you at a later stage.. Drugs / alcohol or outside stress.. Drugs, alcohol or increased stress are not the causes of abusive or aggressive actions against a partner.. Being abusive is a choice.. If your partner regularly blames their behaviour on these or other factors they are not taking responsibility for their own actions.. Failing to take responsibility or blaming others for their actions may be an indication that abusive behaviours directed at you at a later stage will be denied or the seriousness of the situation minimized.. Controlling and abusive behaviours will increase in severity and frequency overtime.. You may be in the relationship for a while, have joint financial responsibilities or children with your partner before realizing that you are in a dangerous and serious situation.. The longer an abusive relationship lasts, the more difficult it is to leave.. Physical violence.. Many people.. miss early warning signs.. of abuse as physical violence has either never been used or used infrequently.. Unfortunately, abuse is typically thought of as primarily involving physical violence.. This is.. not.. always the case.. Many people are subjected to repeated emotionally abusive or controlling behaviours particularly during the early stages of a relationship.. This may or.. may not.. be accompanied by physical assault.. Most people define domestic abuse in terms of injuries sustained and the severity of or regularity with which physical violence is used.. If physical violence is not a factor or has been used a few times during the early stages of the relationship it is likely that people will not recognize the early warning signs of abuse.. How regular physical violence is used can depend on a number of factors.. Important factors include:.. People consciously or unconsciously change their behaviour in order to avoid future aggression or violence.. People excuse any signs of aggression or violence.. People minimize the seriousness of forceful or aggressive behaviour.. People blame themselves or outside factors for the violent behaviour of others.. People understate injuries sustained by viewing bruising or small cuts as minor in comparison to stereotypical images of domestic violence.. Importantly, most abusive relationships will involve physical assault at some point.. If violence has been used during the early stages of a relationship it.. will.. be used again as the relationship develops.. If you remain unsure about your safety in an intimate relationship please see the contact details of support services in your area for further information..

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    Descriptive info: Additional Information.. Myths About Abuse.. Homicide.. Mental Health.. Consequences of Violence & Abuse.. Disability & Abuse.. Authority & Abuse.. Elder Abuse.. "Honour" based Violence & Abuse.. Parents Experiencing Abuse.. Males experiencing Abuse.. Missing Persons.. What is Conflict?.. Everyone experiences conflict in relationships at some point in their lives.. Conflict usually involves verbal arguments.. However, this can escalate to the.. occasional.. use of bullying, emotional and even physical assault.. The destruction of property and personal belongings may also occur particularly during an argument.. Sleep loss, increased stress levels as well as low or negative mood are often associated with the presence of conflict.. The repeated presence of conflict can.. change feelings and behaviours.. towards another and have a.. negative impact.. upon the relationship.. Conflict between individuals may also impact upon the relationships among and environment surrounding.. other adults or children.. not directly involved in the dispute.. Conflict can have a.. negative effect.. upon the individuals involved.. The behaviours used may resemble abuse.. However, while abuse and conflict are often related and can co-occur, it is important to distinguish between them.. The Difference between Conflict and Abuse.. Conflict.. involves a certain level of.. mutual.. disagreement where two or more people cannot get along.. Abuse.. in contrast involves one or more individuals.. repeatedly controlling, threatening and seriously harming.. another in a motivated and calculated manner.. Definition of Conflict:.. The presence of discord in relationships that affect levels of cohesion and convergence.. Conflict can involve the occasional and often equal use of verbal, emotional and physical assault as well as the destruction of property during or after a period of disagreement.. Conflict may negatively impact upon the level of intimacy, support, attachment and commitment to the relationship.. (Hempenstall, in press).. What is Violence?.. Violence is the use of physical force against another person or group of people.. Violence includes physical and sexual assault.. It can also include threats of violent actions.. Violence can cause death or serious injury as well as emotional harm.. Violence can be intentional or unintentional.. The perpetrators may be female and male adults, children or adolescents working in groups or alone.. Violent actions can include obvious forms of physical force including hitting, punching and beating.. It may also involve inappropriately giving drugs or medication to another.. Definition of violence:.. The motivated single or repeated use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against another person, or against a group or community, that results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation.. What is Abuse?.. There is no simple definition of abuse.. Abuse involves a.. variety.. of behaviours, many of which are.. illegal.. Abuse is.. a once-off event.. It is the.. repeated.. use of physically violent, psychologically abusive and dominating behaviours.. Different types of abuse can often co-occur.. The most common forms of abuse include.. :.. Sexual abuse.. Physical abuse.. Emotional or psychological abuse.. Social abuse.. Financial abuse.. Neglect.. Deprivation.. Exploitation.. Harassment.. Stalking.. Destruction of property.. Abuse is not simply a set of behaviours.. Importantly it can.. define.. a relationship and affect how people interact with each other.. Abuse occurs in a number of different settings.. Abusers can be.. male.. and.. female adults, adolescents or children.. Abuse can be separated into different categories depending upon the type of relationship the abuser has to the individual.. Contexts in which abuse occurs.. Domestic or Intimate relationships.. Familial relationships.. Community and neighbourhood.. Definition of Abuse:.. The motivated and persistent use of criminal and non-criminal physical contact and non-contact behaviours against an individual or individuals that causes significant harm.. Harm refers to both physical injury and negative effects upon psychological well-being including impairment of intellectual, emotional, social or behavioural development.. Types of Abuse?.. Sexual Abuse.. The term sexual violence generally refers to:.. Rape: penetration without consent.. Sexual assault: sexual contact without consent.. Aggravated sexual assault: forced sexual contact through the use of violence or threats of violence.. These crimes often involve a range of behaviours that further.. humiliate and degrade.. an individual.. Sexual abuse is the.. use of a variety of contact and non-contact sexual offences.. Sexual abusers can be male.. or.. female adults, adolescents or even children.. Direct or contact sexual abuse.. Commonly reported contact behaviours include:.. Forced penetration or unwanted touching and fondling.. Unwanted use of excessive force during consensual intercourse.. Use of threats, intimidation or violence to perform sexual acts.. The unwanted insertion or use of objects to cause pain and to dominate or control.. Indirect or non-contact sexual abuse.. Non-contact sexual abuse often co-occurs with direct sexual violence.. This type of abuse ranges considerably and can include:.. Forced participation in the making of pornographic material, prostitution and sexual activity with others.. Sexual humiliation or degrading in private or public.. Exposing a child to the sexual activity of others.. Talking to, taunting or teasing in an unwanted sexual manner.. Contact details of intervention and support services for people who have experienced sexual violence and abuse can be found here.. http://www.. ie/supportservices.. html#sexual.. Additional information.. Sex Trafficking.. Sex trafficking involves deliberately.. seeking, hiding, transporting or obtaining.. people for the specific purpose of financial gain through the commercial sex trade.. However, sex trafficking involves a variety of related contact as well as non-contact illegal behaviours.. These behaviours can range from.. protecting criminal networks.. or traffickers to.. administering drugs.. to a victim for the purpose of kidnapping and restraining.. Sex traffickers can be both male.. female.. Targeted individuals are reportedly primarily female.. However, victims of sex trafficking can be.. male and female children, adolescents as well as adults.. Many victims are trafficked through the use of:.. Physical force.. Deception.. Threatening behaviour or coercion.. Peonage (debt repayment system).. Kidnap.. Victims are unable to leave the sex trade for a number of different reasons.. Threats.. to harm them or their family members if they leave are common practice.. Illegal.. immigration.. status may mean that reporting their situation to authorities and seek support seems impossible.. Victims may.. owe.. large and often unattainable amounts of money to pimps / traffickers.. Victims self-esteem and sense of worth is often destroyed through the use of repeated:.. Psychological abuse.. Sexual assault.. Gang rape.. Drugging or substance supply.. Sex trafficking most commonly results in forced prostitution or the unwilling participation in commercial sex.. However, trafficking can also involve individuals who.. consent.. to becoming involved in the sex trade.. Despite initially consenting, these adults are often deceived and forced to work under conditions that they had not originally agreed to.. Contact details of support services for people who have experienced sex trafficking can be found here:.. Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE).. CSE is the practice of gaining money or other reward such as drugs, food, shelter, sexual gratification or power through sexually exploiting a child.. This form of criminal behaviour is most commonly associated with trafficking.. However, CSE can begin within the family unit.. Family members may make their own children available to others for sexual gratification.. CSE can also involve non-contact behaviours including:.. Using a child for recording material of a sexual nature such as posing or modeling.. Persuading or encouraging a child to act in a sexual manner or to have sexual contact with others.. Allowing a child to engage in prostitution.. Using grooming techniques to develop trust and encourage participation.. Organized Child Sexual Abuse.. Child sexual abuse does not always involve one perpetrator and one victim.. Organized sexual abuse can involve subjecting multiple children to sexual activity often with multiple abusers.. This abuse can include sadistic, ritualistic or honour forms of abuse.. The most common way that a child is exposed to this form of abuse is through a family member or acquaintance introducing them or making them available for abuse.. Other children may be trafficked into organized abuse through official institutions which the child has regular contact with (for example school, religious, community or youth groups).. Contact details of support services for people who have experienced child sexual abuse can be found here:.. Juveniles and Preadolescents Displaying Sexually Abusive Behaviours.. Sexually abusive behaviours can and sometimes does begin in early and preadolescence.. The targeted individual is often a family member or someone in close and regular contact with the young person.. While children and teenagers are naturally curious about their bodies and sexuality, there is a distinct difference between innocent curiosity and abuse.. Abuse always involves repeated behaviours and the use of bribery, grooming tactics (gift giving, or violence.. Juveniles and preadolescents who are sexually abusive towards others display and use many of the same behaviours as adult abusers.. Many young people who display sexually abusive behaviours.. do not.. go on to offend as adults.. if help is sought early.. Contact details of intervention and support services for young people displaying sexually abusive behaviours can be found here:.. Physical Abuse.. Physical abuse is the repeated use of physical force or violence against one or more people.. Commonly reported physically abusive behaviours include:.. Punching, slapping or kicking.. Throwing against the wall or onto the floor.. Deliberating biting, burning or scalding.. Shaking violently or dragging across the floor by the hair or clothing.. Using an object or weapon to hurt or cut.. Attempted strangulation or restriction of airway.. Physical abuse further involves the indirect use of abusive tactics which include:.. Inappropriately restraining or tying down.. Inappropriately giving drugs or medication to another.. Corporal punishment.. or using particularly harsh disciplinary methods is a further example of physical abuse.. While many parents or primary caregivers punish a child using physical means, these methods often result in serious bodily pain or injury.. It is possible that the repeated use of these methods may be categorized as physical abuse.. Definition of physical Abuse:.. The motivated and persistent use of criminal physical contact and non-contact behaviours that result in the physical injury of another.. This may include, hitting, kicking, burning, shaking, throwing, suffocating, inappropriately restraining and inappropriately administering drugs or medication to another (Hempenstall, in press).. To learn more about the effects of repeatedly physically punishing a child please see contact details of services here:.. html#children.. Emotional or Psychological Abuse.. Emotional or Psychological abuse almost always happens with, and often precedes, physical assault as well as other forms of abuse.. It is possible that this form of abuse is the only or.. most common.. type of abuse occurring in the relationship.. This repeated form of abuse is often the most difficult to deal with.. It impacts upon a targeted person s sense of reality and self worth.. Emotional or psychological abuse can be extremely subtle and not obvious to others.. It can range from threatening looks or gestures to more obvious or public expressions of criticism.. Common emotionally abusive behaviours include:.. Extreme verbal insults, belittling or degrading.. Deliberate threats with weapon, self or other harm in order to instill fear and make someone comply with demands.. Minimizing, blaming or denying abuse.. Unreasonable or unattainable demands placed upon another.. Forced through bribery, grooming or manipulation into illegal behaviour.. Regular severe sarcasm or hostility.. Premature imposition of responsibility on a child.. Uneven or  ...   between continually receiving spam or unsolicited emails and deliberate harassment.. Harassment occurs even after requests to cease contact are made.. Unwanted communication does not have to be threatening but will by its content or regularity become distressing.. Commonly reported on-line harassment behaviours include:.. Leaving unpleasant or hateful messages.. Continued unwanted communication with inappropriate content.. Hurtful and untrue comments posted for the purpose of defaming character.. Attempted communication off-line.. The motivated and persistent use of non-physical contact criminal behaviours that result in disruptions and interferences in personal privacy.. Non-contact behaviours include; the covert and observable following, monitoring or watching of another.. This may further involve the unwanted furnishing of gifts and actual or attempted communication against the will of another.. The terms stalking and harassment are commonly used to describe the same type of criminal conduct.. While some harassing behaviours can be used by stalkers, stalking has its own unique characteristics.. Stalking is typically.. predatory.. The stalker usually acts alone and all attention is focused on one primary individual.. Stalking is often.. less obvious.. than harassment and the perpetrator more difficult to apprehend.. Stalking involves.. repetitive behaviour.. that can last for a few months or a number of years.. Stalkers can be male.. A stalker can be a stranger, acquaintance, relative as well as a current or former intimate partner.. Commonly reported stalking behaviours include:.. Physically following a targeted person, waiting around their home or place of work.. Monitoring or watching the targeted persons movements, behaviours and whereabouts.. Learning as well as acting on facts about a targeted persons typical movements and personal details.. Taking photos or video footage of the target.. Trespassing on property.. Unwanted or attempted contact with the target.. Threats to harm.. Experiencing stalking can be extremely distressing and frustrating.. Many stalkers will have good excuses for being in and around the vicinity of the targeted persons home or place of work.. In this way stalking behaviours can appear to be harmless or even part of the perpetrators daily routine.. While some cases of stalking can involve threats to harm or even kill, most cases do not escalate into violent behaviour.. However, the history or type of.. relationship.. between a stalker and the targeted individual is important.. These factors can influence the stalkers behaviour as well as the outcome.. The motivations underlying stalking behaviour vary widely.. Commonly reported motivations include:.. Revenge.. Obsession.. Rejection.. Asserting power.. Continuation of controlling behaviour following the breakdown of an abusive relationship.. Contact details of support services for people experiencing stalking can be found by clicking on the link below.. Please note that the National Stalking Helpline is now operating a forum to facilitate peer support for victims and survivors of stalking.. The forum can be accessed via their website.. html#stalking.. Cyberstalking.. Cyberstalking refers to the use of the internet and email to stalk another.. Stalking may begin on-line through innocent communication on forums or social networking sites.. This may later develop into more proximal (physically close) stalking.. However, it is possible that this is the only medium through which the stalker monitors the activity of a targeted person.. A stalker may be in a different country to the targeted individual and pose no immediate physical threat.. This form of stalking can be extremely distressing and the behaviours intrusive.. Typical behaviours include using the targeted persons email and identity to send false messages.. It can further involve online harassing behaviours such as posting unpleasant messages or details about the targeted individual.. Computer-based communication is also increasingly used by close proximity stalkers.. The internet is employed as an additional way to keep track of the movements and gain personal information on the targeted individual.. Commonly reported cyberstalking behaviours include:.. Monitoring social networking sites and social interactions.. Monitoring emails.. Sending unsolicited emails or virus program.. For further information on cyberstalking please see the support services page here:.. html#stalking.. Destruction or Stealing of Property.. The destruction or stealing of property is often overlooked as a serious form of abusive behaviour.. Damaging property or theft of personal belongings may be once-off or rare events.. However, it may be the primary form of abuse being experienced or part of a broader set of behaviours such as harassment or more general intimate abuse.. behaviour is often deliberate and is directed towards one or more specific individuals.. Motivation for this form of abuse can include attempted control or domination as well as to instil fear and intimidate.. Commonly occurring within the community, perpetrators can also be male.. female intimate partners, family members or acquaintances.. Commonly reported behaviours include:.. Setting fire to or using objects to destroy property such as family home or vehicle.. Destroying, tearing up or burning the personal diary of a targeted individual, particularly if the diary includes details of experienced abuse.. Deliberately damaging or breaking any personal items including jewellery, household utensils or clothing.. Stealing personal items for the purpose or re-sale or to make a profit for personal gain.. Threatening to destroy personal belongings or property of another for the purpose of intimidation or to cause fear.. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP).. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy.. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) also known as Fabricated or Induced Illness, most commonly involves the caregiver of a dependent person deliberately and repeatedly; making up, exaggerating, inducing or creating symptoms in a dependent other.. These symptoms may be physical, psychological or behavioural.. For example, the perpetrator may repeatedly create or fake the symptoms of an illness in their own child.. MSBP is often classified as physical abuse.. However, MSBP is a dangerous form of maltreatment with unique and complex characteristics.. MSBP can involve elements of.. neglect, physical, emotional and sexual abuse.. In similarity to other forms of abuse, MSBP involves.. repetitive and deliberate.. behaviour.. It is also characterized by detailed and advanced.. planning.. The majority of perpetrators are the primary caregivers and most often a biological parent.. Perpetrators usually make a determined effort to present themselves as diligent and concerned caregivers.. There can be.. difficulty.. in detecting MSBP.. It may.. co-exist.. with actual behavioural, physical or psychological issues in a dependent other.. Starvation or depriving a dependent other of needed water and nutrition.. Poisoning or secret administration of harmful substances.. Convincing a dependent other that they have an illness.. Convincing a dependent other that they have been abused by someone else.. Repeated physical and psychological harm through unnecessary intrusive physical examinations, surgeries or psychological assessments.. doctor shopping or the consultation with an excessive number of doctors.. Attempted suffocation or restriction of airway to produce seizures.. Deliberately acting to worsen or prevent the improvement of an existing illness / disability.. Domestic Abuse.. The term Domestic Abuse or Intimate Abuse refers to the.. repeated.. use of numerous violent, aggressive and dominating tactics against an intimate partner.. While most commonly referred to as domestic violence , the use of the word abuse represents a.. of aggressive acts that are.. simply physical in nature.. It is typically assumed that domestic abuse primarily involves physical assault.. However, abuse in intimate relationships involves a number of different contact.. non-contact acts.. Abusive behaviours in this context usually.. and there may be one dominating abusive behaviour utilized.. For instance, psychological abuse may be the main form of abuse in the relationship and this will typically occur before, during as well as after other forms of abuse such as physical violence or harassment.. Commonly reported behaviours include;.. Social isolation.. Sexual violence or abuse.. Restricted access to finances.. The destruction or stealing of property.. Domestic abuse involves a.. pattern.. of behaviours which overtime has a severe impact on the targeted individual.. This pattern of abusive behaviour can be directed at any one person and can affect.. men as well as women.. Abuse between intimate partners can have both a direct and indirect effect on.. children.. and other individuals in the environment.. Domestic abuse does.. simply occur between married couples.. It is also found in homosexual relationships, those co-habiting, dating relationships and abusive behaviour can be used by current as well as former partners.. Contact details of support services for people experiencing domestic abuse can be found here:.. html#domestic.. Definition of domestic abuse:.. The motivated and persistent use of criminal and non-criminal contact and non-contact behaviours against an intimate partner.. An intimate partner includes cohabiting, dating, married and former partners.. Contact and non-contact offences involve physical, emotional and sexual assault including isolation, deprivation, neglect, harassment, stalking, exploitation and the destruction or stealing of property.. Familial Abuse.. Familial abuse involves the repeated physical, sexual or emotional abuse of a sibling, child, parent or elder.. Family members include those that may be connected through.. blood, marriage or living arrangement.. Family abuse can further include:.. Neglect,.. Deprivation and.. Familial abuse may involve.. more than one.. abuser.. The abuser can be a male.. female adult, child and adolescent.. Abuse can be perpetrated against one or more family members and the targeted individual may experience more than one form of abuse at any given time.. Offenders may purposefully introduce or expose a targeted family member to other abusers outside of the family unit.. Contact details of appropriate support services for people who have or are currently experiencing family abuse can be found here:.. html.. Definition of familial abuse:.. The motivated and persistent use of criminal and non-criminal, contact and non-contact behaviours against one or more familial members.. Familial members include children, siblings, elders or adults who may be related through blood, marriage or living arrangement.. Contact and non-contact offences can involve: physical, emotional and sexual assault including isolation, deprivation, neglect, harassment, stalking, exploitation and the destruction or stealing of property.. Community Violence Abuse.. Community Violence Abuse.. Violence or antisocial activity occurs in all communities and across all socioeconomic levels.. Community violence refers to various types of interpersonal violence or antisocial activity committed within a specific district or neighbourhood.. Perpetrators may be complete strangers, acquaintances, neighbours, authority figures and gang members.. Perpetrators and targets of community violence can be male or female adults, adolescents or children.. Individuals within the community can be directly victimized through:.. Burglary or theft of personal property.. Car theft or car-jacking.. Mugging or physical assault.. Sexual assault or molestation.. Kidnapping / attempted kidnapping.. Arson (fire setting).. Vandalism.. Homicide or attempted murder.. Non-contact.. criminal acts such as threatening, abusive, intimidating or harassing behaviours may also be commonplace and co-occur with other forms of violence.. Directly experiencing violence in the community can have a serious effect on feelings related to personal safety and the protection of family members.. Repeatedly experiencing criminal activity can have a negative impact on health and psychological well-being.. People can also be indirectly affected by antisocial activity in the community.. The.. exposure.. to illegal activity can be distressing.. The repeated exposure to criminal behaviour can have serious long-term consequences.. Commonly reported criminal activities that people are exposed to in their communities include:.. Drug dealing or substance abuse.. Witnessing violent and threatening behaviour.. Hearing gun fire.. Witnessing murder.. Joyriding.. Contact details of services for people experiencing community violence or abuse can be found here:.. html#communityviolence..

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    Descriptive info: Register for the vapa.. ie messageboard and private blog.. It can be difficult, particularly if you are in an abusive situation, to have your own private space.. This secure personal area allows you to keep a journal of your own experiences, thoughts and hopes for the future.. Create an account by choosing a private username and password known only to you.. Keep your log-in identity secret to ensure complete anonymity.. Once you have created your login this one username and password can be used to access the message board and your own private blog.. Register Now / Login.. Making your blog private.. After registering but before your first blog entry  ...   simple steps.. Step One.. In the upper right portion of your screen select "Blogs".. Step Two.. On the left hand side now select "Blog Control Panel".. Step Three.. Again on the left select "Blog Permissions".. Step Four.. Just to the right of "Blog Permissions" you will be shown an option to change permissions, make sure to set both "Guest Permissions" and "Members Permissions" to "Can not read or reply to your blog entries" and then simply click "Submit".. Step Five.. Thats it, your done.. Your blog will now remain completely private.. Latest News.. Links.. - Garda Siochana.. - PSNI.. Information.. - What Is Conflict?.. - What Is Abuse?.. Contact.. info@vapa..

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    Descriptive info: VAPA is a non-profit organisation consisting of professionals with expertise in the discipline of psychology.. Founder Creator:.. The Violence Abuse Prevention Alliance was established and the website written by forensic psychologist.. Lisa Hempenstall.. Trustees of VAPA include.. Aisling O Meara.. ,.. Naomi Masheti.. Martina Di Renzo.. Sinead Devine.. Contributions to the website have been made by.. Dr.. Sean Hammond.. on.. mental health and abuse.. Mike Murphy.. elder abuse.. Wayne MacSweeney.. males experiencing domestic abuse.. VAPA is always interested in hearing from other practitioners and researchers in the area.. If you would like  ...   or continue to experience Violence Abuse you can do so by becoming a member of VAPA.. Simply click on this.. link.. and fill in your information.. Your details should be online within 24 hours.. A list of members can be seen.. Support Services.. If you are looking for information or contact details of support services in your area please see the support services page.. VAPA is always interested in hearing from you.. If you are aware of a support service that you feel should be included on the site please contact.. l..

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  • Title: Conflict and Violence in Intimate Relationships Survey | VAPA
    Descriptive info: There are 3 surveys on this page:.. The Interpersonal Relationships Survey.. ;.. Community Crime Reporting.. Crimes Against Business.. These surveys offer the opportunity for people to express themselves, share their opinions and experiences in a safe and anonymous manner.. No identifying information will be sought or gathered.. Interpersonal Relationships Survey.. The Interpersonal relationships survey is divided into different sections;.. Intimate relationships.. Community crime police response.. Parent-child relationships.. Sibling relationships.. Elder relationships.. The survey asks about conflict in relationships as well as abusive, violent or criminal activity.. While some of the questions ask about personal experiences, I am also interested in your.. general opinions.. relating to these issues.. You can choose to answer.. ANY.. AS MANY.. sections as you wish.. Please try to complete.. at least TWO sections.. Depending on the amount of information you wish to give the survey takes between 20 - 50 minutes to complete.. Please note that this survey does deal with sensitive topics that some may find upsetting.. You are under.. no.. obligation to participate and may.. withdraw.. at any time.. Contact details of support services are provided throughout the VAPA website.. Please try to answer  ...   like to take part - Click.. to participate.. Approximately 1 in 4 crimes are reported to the police.. It is important that people are aware of the amount and types of crime being committed in different communities.. This short survey asks about any crime you have.. witnessed.. or been the.. victim.. of.. This gives you the chance to report any criminal activity in your community.. The results gathered will be used to raise awareness about the measures required for crime prevention in your area.. The survey takes approximately 5 minutes to complete.. Please indicate that you understand what this survey is about, you are over 18 years of age and you would like to take part -.. Click here.. to participate.. Crimes Against Business Survey.. The aim of this survey is to ascertain the nature and level of crimes committed against different companies.. Findings will be used to raise awareness about the type of crimes affecting businesses and inform potential crime prevention guidelines for companies.. Please indicate that you understand what this survey is about, you are over 18 years of age and would like to take part - Click..

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  • Title: Browse Safely | VAPA
    Descriptive info: Private Browsing.. Newer browsers, like Firefox, offer you the ability you to browse the Internet without saving any information about which sites and pages you’ve visited, you can download the latest version at the link below, Firefox also offer a great guide on private browsing.. Here.. Erasing Internet Explorer’s Browser History.. By default, Internet Explorer keeps your browser history for 20 days.. To erase your browser history in Internet Explorer, follow these steps:.. Open the Tools menu from the toolbar.. Select Internet Options from the Tools Menu.. Click the Clear History button.. Click the Yes button on confirmation.. Erasing Firefox’s Browser History.. To erase your browser history in Firefox, follow these steps:.. Select Options from the Tools Menu.. Click on the Privacy tab placed at the top.. Click the Clear Now button placed under the Private  ...   Clear History from the History menu.. Erasing Opera’s Browser History.. To erase your browser history in Opera, follow these steps:.. Select the Preferences from the Tools menu.. Click on the Advanced tab placed at the top-right.. Choose History from the left side vertical menu.. Click on the Clear button to clear the history.. Erasing Google Chrome’s Browser History.. To erase your browser history in Google Chrome, follow these steps:.. Click on the small spanner icon in the top-right, next to the address bar.. A hover over the spanner icon will say Customize and Control Google Chrome.. Select Clear Browsing Data (or press Ctrl+Shift+Del without opening the menu) from the menu.. Check the Clear Browsing History and Clear Download History checkboxes (if not initially checked).. Click on the Clear Browsing Data button to clear Google Chrome’s browsing history..

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    Descriptive info: The material provided on www.. ie is for information purposes only and is not a substitute for talking to or seeking help from health, counselling or law enforcement professionals.. The information provided on www.. ie is an amalgamation of international and on-going research.. This information is presented in a condensed and general informational manner and will be updated occasionally.. Every effort has been made to ensure that this information is accurate.. Site users should get additional professional advice relevant to their particular circumstances.. Access to and use of the information herein is entirely at the risk of the user.. The Violence Abuse Prevention Alliance shall not be liable, directly or indirectly, to the user or any other third party for any damage resulting from the use of the information contained or implied in the VAPA website.. The views expressed on www.. ie reflect the individual authors own opinions and not all contributors or trustees of the Violence Abuse Prevention Alliance.. This site contains links to a range of external web sites.. VAPA takes no responsibility for  ...   academics, service providers and members of the public.. VAPA gives permission for text on this site to be quoted, provided that the information is not used for profit or changed, and that the source is acknowledged appropriately (eg;.. Information from (Author) Violence Abuse Prevention Alliance website, web address: http://www.. For further information about reproducing information or about the acknowledgement required, please contact l.. Privacy Policy.. The Violence Abuse Prevention Alliance places the safety of men, women and children as their priority.. All members of VAPA adhere to ethical guidelines and principles of psychological societies (Ireland and the UK).. The VAPA website collects two types of information.. The first type is aggregated data on the number of visitors to the website.. No identifying information can or is collected through this method.. The second type of information is via the surveys.. Again, no identifying information is sought or gathered.. Participation is this research is voluntary and participants remain anonymous unless they state otherwise.. At no time will personal information about users of the site be shared with third parties..

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    Descriptive info: Below are contact details for support services across Ireland, Northern Ireland, England, Wales and Scotland.. There are also a number of international contact details offered.. Please note that these lists are not exhaustive.. If you have a site or contact details of support services that may be useful to users of.. and to which you would like us to link, please contact.. The Violence Abuse Prevention Alliance welcomes links to other sites.. These links should not be understood to indicate either approval or disapproval by the Violence Abuse Prevention Alliance.. Children.. Below are the contact details of organisations that provide information for parents as well as youth on a number of important issues relating to Violence Abuse.. Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland, England Wales.. CARI (Provides a proffesional therapy and counselling service to children, families and groups who have been affected by child sexual abuse).. cari.. Phone: 1890 924 567.. Barnardo s Ireland (Offers a wide range of information on the well-being of children families including issues relating to parenting, child protection and development).. barnardos.. Phone: (01) 453 0300.. Barnardo s UK.. org.. uk/.. Phone:.. London and South East 0208 551 0011.. South West 0117 937 5500.. Yorkshire 0113 393 3200.. Midlands 0121 550 5271.. North West 0151 488 1100.. Scotland 0131 334 9893.. Cymru 0292 049 3387.. North East 0191 240 4800.. Northern Ireland 0289 067 2366.. ISPCC.. Irish Society for the Protection of Cruelty to Children (Offers support and information to children parents).. ispcc.. ie/.. NSPCC: National Society of the Protection of Cruelty to Children (U.. K).. nspcc.. Help for adults concerned about a child contact: 0808 800 5000.. Families First Parenting Skills (Belfast).. familiesfirstparenting.. com/.. Phone: 028 9064 3109.. The North Inner City Drugs Task Force (Provides support to a number of projects in Dublin city including education and after school programmes).. nicdtf.. ie/PROJECTS/PROJECTS/Navigation.. Phone: 01 8366592.. Anti-bullying Network (Provides information education on anti-bullying.. ).. (Scotland).. antibullying.. net/whatsnew.. htm.. Kids Scape (Preventing bullying, protecting children).. kidscape.. Phone: 08451 205 204.. Hands on Scotland (Offers practical information, tools and activities to respond helpfully to youth displaying troubling behaviour).. handsonscotland.. co.. uk/index.. Stop It Now! (Stop it Now! UK Ireland is a campaign, managed by the Lucy Faithfull Foundation, which aims to prevent child sexual abuse by raising awareness and encouraging early recognition and responses to the problem by abusers themselves and those close to them).. stopitnow.. Phone: 0808 1000 900.. Email:.. help@stopitnow.. uk.. Think U Know (Offers information for parents and youth on how to stay safe on-line).. thinkuknow.. CEOP: Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (Organisation dedicated to eradicating the sexual abuse of children).. ceop.. police.. The Internet Watch Foundation (UK s Hotline for reporting criminal online content).. iwf.. International.. Building a Europe for and with Children.. (Promotion of children s rights and the protection of children from violence).. (Europe).. coe.. int/t/transversalprojects/children/violence/Default_en.. asp#themes.. Child Helpline International (A global member network of child helplines, working to protect the rights of children).. childhelplineinternational.. org/.. Stop It Now! Child Sex Abuse Prevention Protection Center.. (Provides information support in relation to the sexual abuse of children) (USA).. org/contact.. Phone: 413.. 587.. 3500.. Canadian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.. (Canada).. empathicparenting.. Phone: 705-526-5647.. Jigsaw (Network of agenices that advocate against all forms of child abuse, neglect, and family violence and provide support to families) (New Zealand).. jigsaw.. nz/.. Phone: 04 385 7983.. Child Wise (Seeks to prevent child abuse by providing greater awareness and understanding of the issue) (Australia).. childwise.. net/.. 1800 99 10 99.. Barnardo s (Australia).. au.. Phone: 1800 061 000.. Child Welfare South Africa.. childwelfaresa.. za/.. Phone: +27 11 452 4110.. Ireland.. Crimestoppers (Ireland).. crimestoppers.. Phone: 1800 25 00 25.. Dial to Stop Drug Dealing (Confidential service for people with information on drug dealing in the community).. dialtostop.. Phone: 1800 220 220.. Crime Call (For viewers of Ireland s crime-investigation programme who have information on criminal activity).. Phone: 1800 40 50 60.. England, Wales, Scotland Northern Ireland.. Crimestoppers (UK based charity that allows people who don t feel comfortable speaking to the police to pass on information about crime anonymously.. The organisation operates in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland).. crimestoppers-uk.. Phone: 0800 555 111.. Stop Crime (UK) (Police will send you text messages and emails about incidents in South and West Devon).. stopcrime.. uk.. Crime Watch (UK).. bbc.. uk/crimewatch/.. Crimestoppers USA.. crimestoppersusa.. com/#.. Phone: 1-800-245-0009.. If You See Something, Say Something (Public awareness campaign that highlight the indicators of terrorism and violent crime, emphasizing the importance of reporting suspicious activity to the proper state and local law enforcement authorities) (USA).. dhs.. gov/files/reportincidents/see-something-say-something.. shtm.. Canadian Crimestoppers.. canadiancrimestoppers.. Phone: 1800 222 8477.. Crimestoppers National (Australia).. com.. au/cs/home.. jsp.. Phone: 1800 333 000.. Crimestoppers (New Zealand).. crimestoppers-nz.. Crime Line (South Africa).. https://www.. crimeline.. Phone/SMS: 32211.. Cultural factors.. Ireland, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom International.. Akina Dada wa Africa (An authoritative, minority ethnic-led national network of African and migrant women living in Ireland ).. akidwa.. Phone: (01) 814 8582.. Karma Nirvana (supports victims and survivors of forced marriage and honour based abuse).. karmanirvana.. Phone: 0800 5999 247.. Stop Honour Killings.. stophonourkillings.. IKWRO: The Iranian and Kurdish Women s Rights Organisation.. ikwro.. uk/.. Honour Network Helpline: 0800 5999 247.. Domestic Violence Helpline: 0808 2000 247.. FORWARD: The Foundation for Women s Health, Research and Development.. forwarduk.. Phone: +44 (0)20 8960 4000.. END FGM (European campaign, led by Amnesty International Ireland).. endfgm.. eu/eu.. Acid Survivors Trust International (ASTI).. acidviolence.. Phone: +44 (0) 207 821 1567.. Freedom Network USA (Coalition of non-governmental organisations that provide services to, and advocate for the rights of, trafficking survivors in the United State).. freedomnetworkusa.. Ireland, Northern Ireland, England, Wales Scotland.. Disability Federation of Ireland.. disability-federation.. Phone: 01 4547978.. Disability Action (Belfast, Northern Ireland).. disabilityaction.. Phone: 028 9029 7880.. Voice UK (Telephone support for adults and children with learning disabilities who have been abused).. voiceuk.. 01332 291042.. DIAL UK (Information services on all aspects of disability).. dialuk.. info/about.. asp.. Phone: 01302 310123.. Enable Scotland (Provides a range of information and materials to help adults with disabilities and their carers.. Includes information packs on sexual abuse and learning disabilities).. enable.. uk/info.. php?tid=6 sectiontype=0 sid=18 ssid=251.. Phone: 0141 226 4541.. Disability Rights International (Dedicated to promoting the human rights and full participation in society of people with disabilities worldwide).. disabilityrightsintl.. National Disability Rights Network (USA).. napas.. National Disability Abuse Neglect Hotline (Telephone hotline for reporting abuse and neglect of people with disability) (Australia).. disabilityhotline.. Phone: 1800880052.. Disbaility Resource Centre Auckland (New Zealand).. disabilityresource.. nz/abuse-and-victim-support.. html#.. Phone: (09) 625 8069.. Secretariat of the African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (SADPD) (South Africa).. http://africandecade.. Phone: +27 (0)21 426 5858/5864.. Domestic Violence.. Ireland Northern Ireland.. Womens Aid.. womensaid.. Phone: 1800 341 900.. AMEN (Helpline support service for male victims of abuse and their children).. amen.. Phone: 046 9023718.. National LGBT helpline.. (Provides general information and support for LGBT people in Ireland.. lgbt.. Phone: 1890 929 539.. LINC (Advocating for lesbian and Bisexual Women in Ireland).. linc.. Phone:021-4808600.. Safe Ireland (Provides information and contact details of refuges in Ireland).. safeireland.. Phone: +353 (0)90 64 79078.. COSC (The National Office for the Prevention of Domestic, Sexual and Gender-based Violence) - Provides contact details of support services in different counties throughout Ireland).. cosc.. Phone: 01 4768680.. Women s Aid Northern Ireland.. womensaidni.. Phone: 0800 917 1414.. Men s Advisory Project (Northern Ireland).. http://mapni.. Phone: 028 9024 1929.. The Rainbow Project (Organisation that works to improve the physical, mental emotional health of gay, bisexual, non-heterosexual and transgender individuals in Northern Ireland).. rainbow-project.. Phone: (028) 9031 9030.. LASI (Lesbian Advocacy Services Initiative) (Northern Ireland).. lasionline.. Phone: (028) 90249452.. Carafriend (LGBT Information, Support and Friendship) (Northern Ireland).. cara-friend.. Phone: (028) 90890202.. England, Wales Scotland.. National Domestic Violence helpline.. nationaldomesticviolencehelpline.. Helpline: 0808 200 0247  ...   Mental Health (USA).. nimh.. nih.. gov/index.. shtml.. Phone: 1-866-615-6464 (toll-free).. Distress Centre Ontario (Canada).. dcontario.. Phone: 416-486-2242.. Suicide Hotlines (Canada).. suicidehotlines.. com/canada.. Mental Health Association (Australia).. Phone: 1300 729 686.. Life Line (Australia).. lifeline.. Phone: 13 11 14.. Mental Health (New Zealand).. nz/page/5-Home.. Samaritans (New Zealand).. Phone: 0800 726 666.. Mental Health Information Centre (South Africa).. mentalhealthsa.. za.. Phone: +27 21 938-9229/9029.. Life Line (South Africa).. Phone: (+27 11) 715-2000.. Parental Abuse Support.. Parentline (Ireland).. parentline.. Phone: 1890 927 277.. One Family: Voice, Support, Actopm by one parent families (Ireland).. http://onefamily.. Phone: 1890 66 22 12.. Parents Advice Centre (Northern Ireland).. parentsadvicecentre.. Phone: 0808 8010 722.. Family Lives (UK).. parentlineplus.. Phone:0808 800 2222.. Parents Helpline (UK).. parentshelpline.. Phone: 0808 8010 722.. Parenting Across Scotland.. parentingacrossscotland.. Parent HelpLine: 0800 028 2233.. Lone Parent Helpline: 0808 801 03 23.. Advice Service Capability Scotland: 0131 313 5510.. StepFamily Scotland: 0845 122 8655.. Lone Parent Helpine (UK).. loneparenthelpline.. Phone: 0808 802 0925.. Gingerbread: Single Parents, equal families (UK).. gingerbread.. National Parent Helpline (USA).. nationalparenthelpline.. Phone: 1855 4A PARENT (1855 427 2736).. Canadian Parents: Canada s Parenting Community.. canadianparents.. Parent Line (Australia).. Phone: 1300 30 1300.. Parent Help: For Parent and Family Support (New Zealand).. parenthelp.. Phone: 0800 568 856.. Families South Africa.. famsa.. Police Services.. An Garda Síochána (Irish Police Force).. garda.. Emergency number: 999 or 112.. Confidential line:1 800 666 111.. Contact details of stations in your area:.. ie/Stations/Default.. The Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission (Responsible for receiving and dealing with all complaints concerning the conduct of members of the Garda Síochána).. gardaombudsman.. Phone: 1890 600 800.. Police Service of Northern Ireland.. psni.. Non-emergency number: 0845 600 8000.. Police Ombudsman Northern Ireland.. policeombudsman.. Phone: 028 9082 8600 or 0845 601 2931.. Police.. UK (Contact details of police services throughout England, Wales Scotland).. Emergency number: 999.. Independent Police Complaints Commission (UK).. Phone: 08453 002 002.. ipcc.. Police Complaints Commissioner for Scotland.. Phone: 0808 178 5577.. pcc-scotland.. org.. USA Cops: Nation s Law Enforcement Site.. (Provides contact details of police services across the United States).. usacops.. Emergency number: 911.. Canadian Police Services (Provides contact details of police services across Canada).. canadianpoliceservices.. Australian Government (Provides contact details and links to police services across Australia).. http://australia.. au/topics/law-and-justice/police-services/state-police-services.. Emergency number: 000.. New Zealand Police.. govt.. Emergency number: 111.. South African Police Services.. saps.. Emergency number: 112 or 10111.. Sexual Violence Abuse.. Rape Crisis Network Ireland (Includes a map of support centres nationwide).. rcni.. Phone: 1800 77 88 88.. The Dublin Rape Crisis Centre (Preventing and healing the trauma of rape and sexual abuse).. drcc.. 24 hour helpline: 1800 77 88 88.. One in Four (One in Four professionally supports men and women who have experienced sexual violence).. oneinfour.. Phone: 01 6624070.. Rape Crisis Sexual Abuse Centre Northern Ireland.. rapecrisisni.. Phone: 028 9032 9002.. Nexus Institute (Responds to the needs of adults who have experienced sexual abuse, violence or rape)(Northern Ireland).. nexusinstitute.. Phone: Belfast 028 9032 6803, L Derry 028 7126 0566, P down 028 3835 0588.. Rape Crisis (England Wales).. rapecrisis.. National Helpline: 0808 802 9999.. Rape Crisis Scotland.. rapecrisisscotland.. Helpline: 08088 010302.. Rape and Abuse Line (UK).. rapeandabuseline.. For a male support worker call: 0808 800 0122.. For a female support worker call: 0808 800 0123.. Rape Sexual Abuse Support Centre (Helpline support and information for survivors of rape or childhood sexual abuse throughout the UK).. rasasc.. Phone: 0808 802 9999.. Rape Crisis Network Europe (Provides contact details of rape crisis centres Across Europe).. rcne.. Phone: (Ireland) +353 91 563 676.. RAINN: Rape, Abuse, Neglect Incest National Network (Provides information and support to victims and loved ones as well as an Online SupportLine ) (USA).. rainn.. Phone Hotline: 1800 656 HOPE.. Sexual Assault Centre of Edmonton (Canada).. sace.. ab.. Crisis Line: (780) 4234121.. NSW Rape Crisis Centre (Australia).. nswrapecrisis.. au/index.. Phone: 1800 424 017.. Rape Prevention Education (Provides support and information to survivors of sexual abuse)(New Zealand).. Rape Crisis Cape Town Trust (South Africa).. Observatory Counselling line 021 447 9762.. Athlone Counselling line 021 633 9229.. Khayelitsha Counselling line 021 361 9085.. Ireland, Northern Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales International.. National Stalking Helpine (UK) (The National Stalking Helpline now operates a forum to facilitate peer support for victims or survivors of stalking.. The forum can be accessed via their website).. stalkinghelpline.. Phone: 0808 802 0300.. advice@stalkinghelpline.. Protection Against Stalking (UK).. protectionagainststalking.. Royal Mail Bullying and Harassment Helpline (Provides information about bullying and harassment in the workplace) (UK).. rmgbh.. Phone: 0800 587 4777.. The National Centre for Victims of Crime (USA).. org/src/Main.. Working to Halt OnLine Abuse (Voluntary organisation that provides education and information on online stalking or harassment).. haltabuse.. Substance Abuse.. Drugs.. drugs.. Phone: HSE drugs helpline 1800 459 459.. Alcholics Anonymous.. alcoholicsanonymous.. Phone: 01 8420700.. The Ana Liffey Drug Project.. aldp.. Phone: 01 878 6899.. Addiction Northern Ireland.. nicas.. Phone: 02890 66443.. The Eastern Drugs and Alcohol Co-ordination Team (EDACT).. edact.. Phone:028 9027 9398.. Drugs Line.. drugsline.. Phone:0808 1 606 606.. Addaction (Addaction has services across England, Wales Scotland).. addaction.. Phone: 020 7251 5860.. Adfam (National charity working with families affected by drugs alcohol).. adfam.. Phone: 020 7553 7640.. Alcohol Information Scotland.. alcoholinformation.. isdscotland.. Recovery Connection (USA).. recoveryconnection.. Phone: 1800 993 3869.. Canadian Drug Rehab Centres (Directory containing details of residential treatment programs and outpatient rehabilitation programs).. canadiandrugrehabcentres.. Phone: 1877 718 2041.. Drug and Alcohol Services South Australia.. dassa.. sa.. au/site/page.. cfm.. Phone: 1300 131340.. Alcohol and Drug Association New Zealand.. adanz.. Phone: 0800 787 797.. Alcholics Anonymous (South Africa).. aasouthafrica.. Johannesburg: (011) 436 0116.. Cape Town: (021) 592 5047.. Durban: (031) 301 4959.. Victim Support.. Phone: (066) 7119830.. Support After Crime Services (Covering: Cork - Limerick - South Tipperary - Waterford - Clare).. supportaftercrimeservices.. Phone: 021 432 0555.. The Commission for the Support of Victims of Crime.. csvc.. Phone: 01 602 8661.. Counselling directory.. counsellingdirectory.. Victim Support NI (Northern Ireland).. Counselling directory (provides contact details of counsellors throughout Northern Ireland, England, Wales Scotland).. counselling-directory.. Phone (Surrey, UK): 0844 8030 240.. Victim Support Scotland (Victim Support Scotland is a national charity which provides free and confidential support to victims and witnesses of crime, irrespective of whether the crime has been reported to the police.. Individuals can self-refer via our website).. Canadian Resource Centre for Victims of Crime (Provides links and information for victims of crime across Canada).. crcvc.. ca/en/links/.. Victims of Crime (Australia).. justice.. vic.. au/victimsofcrime.. Phone: 1800 819 817.. Victim Support New Zealand.. Phone: 0800 842 846.. NICRO The National Institute for Crime Prevention and the Reintegration of Offender (South Africa).. nicro.. za/programmes/programmes_victims.. Phone: + 27 (0)21 462 0017.. An Garda Siochana (Irish Police Force)- Missing Persons Bureau.. ie/Controller.. aspx?Page=85 Lang=1.. Phone: 01 666 2615.. Missing Persons Helpline.. missingpersons.. Phone: 1890 442 552.. Missing Irish People.. http://missing.. Missing Kids Ireland.. http://ie.. missingkids.. uk/index/updates/updates_missing_persons-2.. Phone: 0845 600 8000.. Crimestoppers: 0800 555 111.. The Metropolitan Police (UK).. met.. uk/missingpersons/.. Missing People (UK).. missingpeople.. Phone: 020 8392 4590.. Missing Kids UK.. http://uk.. Child Rescue Alert (UK).. npia.. uk/cra/.. Child Exploitation and Online Protection Agency (CEOP).. http://ceop.. PACT (Parents and Abducted Children Together).. pact-online.. Phone: +44 (0)7506 448116.. Missing Wales.. missingwales.. Phone: 08000 12 12 17.. Missing Abroad.. missingabroad.. org/.. Phone - 0207 047 5060.. IN AN EMERGENCY PLEASE CALL 0207 047 5060.. International Centre for Missing Exploited Children.. icmec.. Missing Children Europe.. missingchildreneurope.. Phone (Belgium): +32 2 475 44 13.. European Hotline for Missing children.. hotline116000.. Phone: 116 000.. National Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (US).. 24-hour Hotline: 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678).. Federal Bureau of Investigation.. fbi.. gov/wanted/kidnap.. Let s Bring Them Home (Organization focusing on missing adults) (US).. lbth.. org/ncma/index.. php.. Australian Federal Police.. au/missing-persons/overview.. nz/service/missing/.. Missing Persons New Zealand.. missing.. South African Police Service.. za/missing_persons/report_missing_person.. Missing Persons South Africa.. http://missing-in-sa.. livejournal.. Missing Children South Africa.. http://missingchildren.. Emergency: 072 MISSING (072 647 7464)..

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    Descriptive info: Myths about Abuse.. Domestic and family abuse only really occurs in poor communities.. Abuse within the family unit or between intimate partners occurs in all communities and across all socioeconomic levels.. Violence and abuse in low income neighbourhoods are more likely to come to the attention of law enforcement as well as intervention services.. The number of people experiencing abuse in any community is difficult to ascertain.. Many people do not come forward due to stigma, embarrassment, fear and possible damage to reputation or employment.. Abusers are almost always adult males.. Abusers can be male or female.. Most cases of abuse that come to public attention involve male perpetrators.. However, sexual, physical and psychological abuse is frequently committed by females.. People are less likely to report the abuse of a female particularly if the victim is a male or the perpetrator a primary caregiver.. Youth abusing their parents or siblings is often overlooked and rarely publicly addressed.. Many adults, children and adolescents experience physical, psychological and sexual abuse at the hands of a young family member.. The gender and age of the perpetrator can decrease the likelihood that someone will report abuse and seek support.. This is often related to embarrassment, fear of further abuse or not being believed and a need to protect those that are hurting them.. If a case of abuse was that bad then the police would be involved.. There are many reasons why people do not report abuse to the police.. If the targeted individual(s) is related to or has been in a relationship with the perpetrator for some time it is likely that they have a mixture of often conflicting feelings.. These feelings can include anger, embarrassment, fear, loyalty to the perpetrator and confusion.. It is also possible that help from the police was sought and the reaction was unhelpful or unprofessional.. Targeted individuals will have experienced numerous serious assaults or threatening behaviour before going to the police.. If a report of abuse is met with an unsympathetic police response this seriously decreases the likelihood of future reporting and increases risks to the targeted individual(s).. Abusers and victims are easily recognizable.. There are many stereotypes surrounding what a perpetrator and victim should look like or how they should behave in public.. Common misconceptions regarding victims include that they are unemployed or unprofessional, weak and submissive.. Common misconceptions regarding perpetrators include that they are tough, have a criminal or antisocial background and are noticeably aggressive.. In reality, there is no typical perpetrator or victim.. People from diverse backgrounds, professional and educational levels as well as cultures can and are frequently effected by abuse.. People who experience abuse must hate the perpetrators.. Repeatedly experiencing abuse does not necessarily mean that the perpetrator is hated.. People can have a mixture of feelings towards their abuser(s).. This is often dependent upon the type of relationship between the targeted individual and the perpetrator (s).. In certain cases children, adolescents and adults will try to protect those that are hurting them.. This can be related to a fear of being alone, a need to protect the perpetrator and loyalty.. Perpetrators of abuse can be extremely protective, loving and supportive.. If the targeted individual is isolated or dependent upon the perpetrator they may have strong feelings for those that are hurting them.. Alcohol or drug misuse causes violence and abuse.. Substance misuse can and sometimes does accompany violent and abusive behaviour.. Abusers frequently blame their actions on alcohol or drug use.. However, substance misuse does not cause abusive behaviour but intensifies existing attitudes and aggressive actions.. Many perpetrators do not abuse others while under the influence.. Bearing in mind the distinctive patterns of behaviour that characterize abusive relationships in any context, it is more likely that abusive behaviour is present prior to, during as well as after the misuse of any substance.. Abuse within the family or between intimates is a private matter and nobody should interfere.. Abuse is a criminal issue.. An individual may feel humiliated and at fault for the abuse.. It can be extremely difficult to admit that a person is being abused, has been abused for some time and feels unable to leave the situation or report the abuse.. The inability to leave often stems from feelings of isolation and lack of self-esteem.. A primary source of support can be from the community.. Being aware that support is and will continue to be available can provide the additional confidence needed to end the relationship or report the abuse.. If the abuse was that bad the person(s) would report the behaviour or simply leave the relationship.. It must be recognized that leaving an abusive situation can be incredibly difficult.. There are often numerous factors which to the targeted individual may seem to actually weigh against leaving.. Abuse in relationships is often not recognized as abuse for a long time.. The behaviours experienced are often minimized, denied or excuses are made on behalf of the abuser.. Commonly cited reasons for remaining in an abusive situation or not reporting abuse include; lack of access to money or limited finances; lack of trust in others including the police / criminal justice system; limited available housing options and a lack a social support network.. After years in a relationship the individual may have nothing of their own and left with incredibly limited choices and resources.. Even when abuse is recognized low self-esteem, fear of intimacy, lack of trust in others and loyalty all can play a vital role in the decision to remain in the situation.. Furthermore, there may be children involved and many people do not want to break up the family unit.. People often lie about or exaggerate their experiences of abuse.. It is extremely rare that people will repeatedly lie about experiencing abuse.. Targeted individuals commonly minimize or even deny that they are experiencing any form of abuse.. In contrast to popular public opinion, people are more likely to be murdered by a current or former intimate partner as well as a family member than by an unknown individual.. In many homicide cases there is some form of relationship between the victim and perpetrator.. The intensity or strength of this relationship can be real or imagined.. Victims may be connected to the perpetrator through blood, marriage or living arrangement.. Perpetrators may also be former partners, acquaintances or individuals displaying stalking or harassing behaviour.. The history and type of relationship can influence motivation and level of risk posed to individuals.. Homicide by a current or former intimate partner.. Homicide by a current or former intimate partner is one of the most prevalent forms of murder internationally.. A history of physical violence in the relationship is often thought of as the main risk factor associated with partner homicide.. However, many homicides occur.. without.. a frequent history of physical assault.. Usually.. risk factor will be present prior to a murder.. There are many factors that can pose a great threat to an individual including:.. Extreme jealousy or possessiveness;.. A history of psychologically abusive and controlling behaviours;.. Substance abuse or mental health issues;.. A change in the relationship such as pregnancy,.. A breakdown of the relationship.. Behaviour that is seen as unacceptable or contradictory to family traditions (please see Honour based Violence Abuse for further information).. External stressors that may precede a murder include;.. A lack of access to children;.. Protective orders.. Financial difficulties.. Legal issues.. Following a homicide many people outside of the relationship comment on their shock at the tragic event.. However, there are usually a number of.. warning signs.. prior to a murder in this context.. These warning signs may be subtle and the build up to the murder gradual.. Some of these homicides, particularly murder followed by.. suicide.. , are often.. planned in advance.. The level of risk posed to intimate partners is.. relationship-specific.. It is important that escalation in abusive behaviours or any other worrying changes in an individual be documented and.. help sought as soon as possible.. Homicide by a family member.. Homicide by a family member can be the most difficult to understand.. It defies the view of the family being a safe environment.. Motivation for murder in this context varies considerably.. Substance abuse, divorce or separation and revenge are commonly cited motives for this type of murder.. However, many cases are.. associated with general controlling, abusive or violent behaviour.. Familicide or whole-family murders are on the increase.. This type of homicide occurs when an entire family are murdered, usually by one parent.. In recent years, many countries across Europe have been seriously affected by familicide.. One of the most common forms of homicide within the family involves.. homicide-suicide.. cases.. This usually occurs when a parent kills their child and then takes their own life.. Filicide is a devastating and poignant crime.. It can be difficult for people to understand why anyone would kill their own child.. While filicide is primarily associated with female perpetrators it is more typically committed by the.. primary caregiver.. Some of these cases do involve mental health issues.. While the presence of a mental illness does.. not.. necessarily mean that there is an increased risk of homicide, it can be a factor.. Importantly, it most often happens when a parent feels that there is.. no other option.. available.. Many cases involve parents killing their children in order to protect or save them.. Commonly referred to as a mercy killing, these murders typically involve parents who love their children and feel that this is the best or only option.. Contact Support.. If you have lost a loved one through homicide please visit the Support Services page.. If you are worried about the mental health of a loved one please visit the Support Services page.. Dr Sean Hammond.. ie/contributors.. html#seanhammond.. The impact of mental illness within a family can be devastating.. The strangeness and eccentricity in the mentally ill person s thinking and behaviour may be bewildering and frightening.. Mental health services in most parts of the world are poorly funded and overstretched so the burden of care for mentally disordered people often falls squarely upon the family.. A mental health diagnosis often leads family members to experience feelings of fear, loss and stigma.. Coupled with the fact that contact with extended family and friends often suffers, this can lead to overwhelming feeling of being alone.. However, there are many support groups available to families under this kind of pressure.. Notable in Ireland is the Shine On charity:-.. ie/index.. php/supports.. Mental health Violence.. Mental illness is neither a necessary nor sufficient condition for violent behaviour.. However, it is undeniable that for some people suffering from mental illness the potential for harm to the self and others is very real.. Studies linking mental illness to assault show that patients with schizophrenia, major depression, or bipolar disorder were significantly more likely to be assaultive than people without these disorders.. That said the prevalence rates of violence by mentally ill people is still very small and although most people with these conditions do not commit assaultive acts, the presence of such a disorder is significantly associated with an increased risk of violence.. The severity and the particular form the illness takes may be indicative of abusive behaviour but a number of other factors also come into play.. Many of these are external to the illness itself and relate largely to the levels of stress in the person s immediate environment.. Mental health Abuse.. While we automatically think of the person with mental illness as being the potential perpetrator of violence it should be remembered that the sufferer is also more likely to be vulnerable to abuse from others.. Within a family setting the stress of being a carer for someone with mental illness can often lead to frustration and rage.. Support Help.. If a carer of someone with mental illness feels that the illness is leading the sufferer towards the risk of violence it is important that the information is conveyed to relevant parties as quickly as possible.. The first port of call is usually the family doctor or GP, but once a diagnosis is made there will probably also be other professionals involved like a psychiatrist and social worker.. Bearing in mind the pressure the health system is always under with regard to mental health, it is advisable to put your concerns in writing if possible outlining clearly the sequence of events that are causing you concern and to make sure that copies are sent to each professional involved in the care of the sufferer.. If you are worried about your own mental health or the mental health of a loved one please see the support services page for organizations in your area.. Consequences of Violence Abuse.. Experiencing violence  ...   a number of family members as well as individuals within the larger community.. This collusion and collective violence can increase the targeted person s level of isolation.. It may also decrease the likelihood of reporting criminal behaviour.. The behaviours or reactions that can lead to serious victimization and even homicide range considerably.. Being caught smoking in public, dressing or acting inappropriately and being involved in an inter-faith relationship may result in HBV.. Other commonly reported behaviours that cause HBV include:.. Perceived or actual infidelity and flirtation.. Leaving an intimate relationship or marriage.. Being homosexual.. Refusing to agree to or avoiding an arranged marriage.. Pre-marital intimate relationships.. Having liberal views that defy traditionally reserved or culturally sanctioned principles.. Educational or career decision making conflicts.. Under certain circumstances being sexually assaulted or raped can be seen as dishonouring the family and community.. Attempting to leave an abusive relationship would also be generally seen as unacceptable.. These types of situations ensure.. repeat victimization.. and have serious.. for the mental and physical health of the targeted individual.. Perpetrators of HBV are both male.. While women are predominately affected by HBV, males are often targeted.. Commonly reported honour-based violence includes:.. Threatening behaviour and threats to kill.. Kidnapping (often related to a missing persons report), false imprisonment and hostage-taking.. Sexual violence and abuse.. Physical assault.. Forced marriage.. Homicide and attempted murder.. Harassment or repeated attempted provocation.. Obstructing or conspiring to prevent the course of justice (protection of perpetrator (s)).. Use of weapons to harm or intimidate.. Culture Abuse.. The acceptance and continued use of abusive behaviour can be heavily influenced by cultural traditions.. Different sections of society come with a specific set of values, religious beliefs and behavioural as well as cultural expectations.. Strict adherence to certain traditional beliefs can result in excessive violence, murder and mutilation.. Female genital mutilation (FGM).. Female genital mutilation, also known as female genital cutting (FGC) commonly involves clitoridectomy (the surgical removal of the clitoris).. However, FGM includes any procedure that mutilates or alters female genitalia for non-medical reasons.. These procedures can include the removal of the labia ( lips surrounding the vagina) as well as the narrowing of the vaginal opening.. Motivations for this procedure vary considerably and are heavily influenced by familial as well as community ideals.. Commonly reported motivations include:.. Considered cultural tradition that must be followed.. Religious duty.. The reduced chances of females having extra-marital affairs.. Clitoris / labia considered unclean or male body parts.. Considered the proper way to prepare a female for adulthood and marriage.. Considered a way of preserving virginity and family honour.. Mothers frequently allow their daughters to go through these procedures.. The practice of FGM is illegal in many countries.. However, FGM remains prevalent internationally.. Many females who have undergone procedures.. do not.. come to the attention of health care professionals until the time of childbirth.. FGM has serious psychological as well as medical.. including:.. Poor self-image and negative effects on self-identity.. Difficulty eating, sleeping and concentrating following the procedure.. Severe pain and excessive bleeding.. Infections including recurring urinary tract infections.. Cysts, large amounts of scar tissue, swelling and holes developing in or around vagina or rectum.. Long-term and recurring pain.. Acid attacks.. An acid attack is a serious form of violent assault.. These attacks primarily involve the throwing or dumping of acid (or any corrosive substance) over the face and body of another.. While commonly thought of as a female-only issue, the victims of acid attacks can be.. male and female children and adults.. The perpetrators of acid attacks are commonly.. male or female family members.. current/former intimate partners.. The motivations for these attacks vary considerably.. Commonly reported motives include:.. The rejection of a marriage proposal or sexual advance.. Revenge over family disputes.. The breakdown of a marriage or intimate relationship.. Inadequate dowries.. Intentional disfigurement.. Reduced chances of future marriage or intimate relationship.. The survival rate of acid attacks is very high.. However, this means that survivors have to live with severe pain and disfigurement.. Acid attacks can also cause:.. Blindness.. Physical disability.. Poverty.. Depression and loss of self-esteem.. Suicide.. Fear of another attack (particularly after seeking legal action).. Fear of going outside or to public places.. For further information contact details of support services that deal with HBV, FGM and Acid attacks, please click.. The abuse of a parent by their own child or children continues to be inadequately addressed.. As a.. taboo.. issue many parents are isolated and remain silent about their experiences.. Many children and adolescents occasionally call their parents names, can be aggressive or refuse to follow the rules.. However, this behaviour is very different to sustained and repeated abuse.. Abuse commonly involves financial, psychological, physical and even sexual assault.. Many parents will experience more than one type of abuse.. The abusers can be male.. female child, adolescent and adult offspring.. In the family unit there can be.. one or more.. abusers.. Abuse can begin in early adolescence or later in adulthood.. Abuse may also be directed at.. other family members.. Parents in abusive situations often report feeling depressed or suicidal.. Some parents report that they are.. living in fear.. of their off-spring.. Frequently blaming themselves, parents don t always seek outside support.. Types of abusive behaviour commonly reported by parents include:.. Making unrealistic or unattainable demands.. Stealing large amounts of money.. Running away from home.. Constantly criticizing.. Threatening to kill or seriously injure.. Threaten with a weapon.. Falsely reporting child abuse.. Repeatedly hitting or punching.. Destroying personal items or seriously damaging the family home.. Being locked in a room for extended periods.. As with other forms of abuse, parental abuse is.. associated solely with any socio-economic class, cultural or educational background.. Increased stress, changes in family dynamics, drug / alcohol abuse and mental health issues are commonly cited causes of parental abuse.. However, there is.. no typical.. reason why offspring are abusive.. There are often a.. number of factors.. that will contribute to the use of abusive behaviour.. Contact details of support services for parents can be found.. Males Experiencing Abuse.. Wayne McSweeney.. html#waynemacsweeney.. Men as victims of domestic violence is not rare.. Many people don t take any notice of it and treat it as a joke.. Men report psychological and physical violence at all levels, from name calling in public places to extreme physical violence that they may need to see a doctor for.. Male victims of domestic violence are;.. Called names and told that they are useless.. Hit in the groin ( private parts).. Kicked.. Blamed for the abuse ( you make me do this ).. Punched.. Scratched.. Stabbed.. Threatened that if they tell anyone that they will never see their children again.. Their partners often try to control who they see and what they do.. They must tell their partner how they spend their money and often their partner will not allow them any control over their money.. Many men who are victims stay silent, and don t seek help.. BATTERED MEN; WHO ARE THEY?.. These men come from all walks of life, and many are not believed, because of the fact that they are men.. These man can be;.. Builders.. Drivers.. Gardeners.. Lawyers.. Policemen.. Unemployed.. Often these men are afraid of what friends and family will say and they are afraid of what people will think of them.. Even when a man can prove he has been the victim of violence, he is the one who has to leave the family home.. When this happens, many men can be separated from their children and often have trouble gaining access or spending time with them.. Many report that they are treated as the one who is abusing rather than the victim by many of the people that they contact.. Men report becoming depressed and have low self-esteem.. Many say that they have thought of suicide.. Men can be victims of domestic violence.. Male victims of Domestic violence don t bring the abuse on themselves.. That there is no excuse for the psychological and physical violence that men experience at the hands of their partner.. There are many reasons why men do not report their victimization and why they stay in an abusive situation, and some of the.. myths.. commonly held about men s place in the family, guides how society views these men.. Dispelling the myth s;.. Lack of Resources for Abused Men.. Many men report one of the major issues that prevent them from reporting abuse is a shortage of resources, which may be real or imagined.. Many domestic violence services are aimed at helping female victims.. While society is aware of the wider term domestic violence shelter, many shelters are still known as battered women shelters.. By law, many of these community resources are theoretically there to help all victims of domestic violence, but many men have reported that they experience resistance when they do try to access services.. Even if these support services do provide to men, abused men may feel as though they are not welcome there because of the female population.. Why Men Don t Report Physical Abuse.. Men often suffer physical abuse in silence because they are afraid that no one will believe them or take them seriously.. In fact, some men who do try to get help find that they are report that they feel like that are being mocked and ridiculed.. They report that on one would think of telling a battered woman, that it wasn t serious enough to report to the appropriate services but people often don t think twice about saying that to a battered man.. Many men are too embarrassed to admit that they are being abused.. Traditional gender roles compound the matter.. A real man is expected to be able to control his wife.. Aside from the embarrassment over admitting abuse, abused men may feel that they are somehow less of a man for allowing themselves to be abused.. But just like abused women are told when they suffer physical violence, abuse is never the victim s fault.. This is no less true just because the victim happens to be male.. Don t suffer this abuse alone.. You can get help!.. Contact details of support services for men experiencing domestic abuse can be found.. THE HISTORY.. In 1977 Suzanne Steinmetz published a controversial research study entitled The Battered Husband Syndrome.. The research findings reported on the results of survey that investigated men and women s use of violence in self-reported partner assaults.. It stated that while most attention is given to women who are abused by men, men are often overlooked victims of domestic violence.. Steinmetz used historical data and comic strips to reflect popular values, and the results derived from several empirical studies to highlight the problem of husband abuse.. Although the research of Steinmetz study was instantly criticized, findings from numerous studies since have supported Steinmetz s early report, that men can be victims of domestic violence.. Women who abuse men are not much different than their male counterparts who abuse women.. Men can be hit, kicked, punched, pushed, or bitten by women abusers.. Women can also use weapons, such as knives, guns, or any blunt object that can be used to strike.. Abused men are not necessarily smaller or physically weaker than the women who abuse them, but they do not use their size or strength to hurt their abusive partners even when they are being hurt.. OVERVIEW OF MEN AS VICTIMS.. This phenomenon of men as victims of domestic violence is not uncommon, although many tend to ignore it, dismiss it, or treat it with selective attention.. Men report psychological and physical violence at all levels, from name calling in public places to extreme physical violence that requires medical attention.. Most men react by staying silent.. Often this silence is encouraged by factors such as fear of ridicule from friends and family and those that do report it may suffer society s stigma for not protecting themselves.. These men come from all walks of life, social backgrounds and cultures and report they are disbelieved, because of the fact that they are men.. Even when a man has proved he has been the victim of violence, it appears that his only option is to leave the family home.. When this happens many men can be separated from their children and often experiences difficulty in obtaining regular contact with them.. Many report that they are treated as the perpetrator rather than the victim by many of the services that they contact.. Men report becoming depressed and this can further compound any issues around mental health that many experience; with anxiety, post-traumatic-stress-disorder, low self-esteem and suicidal thoughts often present in those who present to their doctors.. Many men suffer this abuse alone..

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